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DIY Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine | How it Works?

Hey, New physicist here. I am very happy to inform you that the video I published (How to make wind Turbine) nearly two years ago on YouTube got more than 6 million views till now. Thank you for your like comments and unconditional support. Many of my YouTube friends informed me that the video is very helpful to those you are planning to build a large homemade wind turbine. They also told me that it would be great if it had a voice explanation along with the video. Yeah, you can watch that video below.

Make Wind Turbine



Well, so in this blog post, I am going to explain, how I made a real wind turbine. A wind turbine has four parts. First, the propeller, which converts the wind into energy to rotational energy. Gear and dynamo assembly is used to convert the rotational energy of the propeller into useful electric power. The tail is a part of the yaw mechanism which helps the wind turbine to face the wind, even if wind direction changes. A turbine base or tower holds all other three components at a height where the consistent wind is available.

DIY wind turbine instructions

1. DIY wind turbine Propeller

So, let’s get started.

First of all, buy a piece of PVC pipe having 60 cm in length, 6 inches in diameter, and 4 mm thickness. We have to cut 3 pieces of blades from this PVC pipe. Cut it into the required shape and make two holes to fix the blades on the propeller hub. You should be very careful while handling an angle grinder. Always use an angle grinder with a guard on it and don’t forget to wear eye protection glasses.

In the next step, you need to have a little welding skill. Take a six mm nut and weld it at the center of a GI Plate washer having a 2-inch diameter.
Then weld three GI L Clamps at 120-degree distance from each other. 
Always use a welding shield and glass while practicing welding. Because you need healthy eyes to watch my videos.
Yeah, now is the time to screw all three blades on the propeller hub.
Take 8 inch, 4mm PVC Pipe
Cut it into blade shape 1:2:30 Ratio as shown in the figure
Smoothen the edges.
Take a 3 Inch washer and weld GI Pieces on It.
Screw PVC blades On it.

2. DIY wind Turbine base

Another important function of a wind turbine is its ability to face the wind automatically. Otherwise, it won’t be able to maximize wind energy harvesting. This mechanism is called a yaw mechanism. It works with the help of a flexible turbine base and a tail.  
Next, take two ball bearings, two-inch in diameter and fix it at the two ends of a small piece of GI Pipe. I Used M seal to fix them.
The next step is very important because it plays an important role in the yaw mechanism, which helps the propeller to rotate itself to face the wind and maximize wind energy harvesting.
Take a Johnson wheel and remove the plastic part. Then weld the bearing part at the end of a GI pipe. Weld a piece of iron having L shape and a hose clip like this. I did all this to fix Gears, chain, dynamo and the tail on the tower.
The tail will help the propeller to face the wind. As a result, we will get the maximum output. We can cut aluminum sheet very easily to any shape. Cut it to a proper shape.
    1. Take a Johnson wheel and remove the wheel
    1. Weld it to one side of a 1″ square GI Pipe (1.5m)
    1. Connect bearings in a Piece of GI pipe and Place it on the johnson wheel.
  1. Weld a hose clip on it to fix dynamo.

3. DIY Wind Turbine Tail

The tail will help the propeller to face the wind. As a result, we will get the maximum output. We can cut aluminum sheet very easily to any shape. Cut it to a proper shape.
    1. Cut aluminum sheet into wind turbine tail shape
    1. Screw it on a GI Piece
    1. Fix the tail on Wind turbine Base
SAFETY FIRST APPROACH
Keep in mind that safety must be the first priority. If you are not familiar with angle Grinder, I strongly recommend you not to use it. In any case, children should not experiment with it. Also, when welding you should wear eye protection glasses, face shield, and hand gloves. Ask professional welders to get your work done. That would be better. I have worked as a welder and wireman two years, so I have some experience it such things. Thank God.
Then I made a base using GI Pipe and anglers. Watch the above video for all other connection procedures. I have explained it well in the video.
Yesterday I went to a cycle workshop and asked them for an old cycle dynamo. New dynamos are not as efficient as the old one. Besides, cycle dynamos are AC GENERATORS. The Output will be alternating current. It is better to use a DC Dynamo instead of AC in a small scale power generation system. But I couldn’t Find one. No problem, we can use either.

4. Assemble Each Component together

You will get a gear, chain, and freewheel from an old cycle. Let’s assemble all the components on the base. Fix freewheel on the dynamo. I used a low-cost 12v dynamo. If you want higher output you can buy an efficient dynamo from Amazon.
Yeah, that’s it. Our horizontal axis wind turbine is ready. Now is the time to test it. Place the turbine outdoor or in front of a wall fan. Yeah, it works. You can use this wind turbine to recharge batteries, smartphones, etc. If you enjoyed this video don’t forget to click like, share and subscribe to this channel. Thanks for watching, see you soon with another renewable energy project video. Till then bye.
Watch Video Closely to assemble each Component Together. Make sure the crank wheel and flywheel align straight. Then Connect the output to a battery or multimeter. Place the wind turbine outside where the wind blows.
That’s It, DIY wind turbine Project is ready

Watch How to DIY Wind Turbine Video


How Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine Works?


Hi, I am back with another tutorial about the working of horizontal axis wind turbines. Hope this post will help a lot of renewable energy enthusiasts. So share it with your friends and keep reading. As you know, there are different types of wind turbines. But the most popular and widely used one is the horizontal axis wind turbine. How does a horizontal axis wind turbine work? You know what wind power is the fastest-growing renewable energy source in the world. That’s why I love to talk about wind turbines and make projects.
Let’s take a look at the most important components of a wind turbine. A horizontal axis wind turbine has four important components and two controlling mechanisms. They are the Propeller, gearbox, dynamo, and the tower. Besides, there are two controlling systems called yaw mechanism and pitch control mechanisms in a wind turbine.

How does wind turbine work?

Let’s take a look at the working of wind turbines. The propeller is the most important part of a wind turbine. It is designed like an aerofoil, which means like an airplane wing. The aerodynamic cross-section of the blade is what causes the thrust on the blade to rotate when the wind blows. But this rotational speed is not enough to generate a substantial amount of electricity from the dynamo.

That’s why we use a gearbox in between propeller and dynamo; to multiply rotational speed. Higher the speed of rotation higher will be the output. This output current from the dynamo will send to the tower base where there is a step-up transformer that will step-up the dynamo output to a convenient voltage for distribution to the grid.

Controlling

You’ve learned. how a horizontal axis wind turbine works. But there is a catch; wind direction and wind speed changes over time. This will dramatically affect wind turbine output. Two mechanisms are used to overcome this difficulty. Yaw mechanism and pitch control mechanism.
You may have noticed big and long-tail behind horizontal axis wind turbines. The propeller should face the wind to get the maximum efficiency. So when wind direction changes this tail will adjust the propeller to face the wind. This method is known as mechanical yawing. Modern wind turbines use a more advanced approach here. You can’t see a tail in modern wind turbines. But there is a tiny wind direction measuring tool similar to a tail; which will identify the wind direction and will assist the auto-adjustment circuit system to change the propeller position. Great!
Like wind direction, wind speed will also change from time to time. Changing wind speed will result in varying output. To get a uniform output we use a pitch control mechanism. What is that? Pitch refers to the angle between the blade and the propeller plane. There is a velocity, measuring tool on top of the turbine casing which will assist the pitch control mechanism to adjust the pitch angle automatically. When wind speed increases the PCM will increase the pitch; thereby reducing the propeller rotational speed. When wind speed decreases the PCM will reduce the pitch thereby increasing the rotational speed of the propeller.

This is how a horizontal axis wind turbine works. Why most HAWTs have three blades. That’s another topic. We will discuss it in another post.

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